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Review
, 117 (22), 2938-48

Vascular Calcification: Pathobiology of a Multifaceted Disease

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Review

Vascular Calcification: Pathobiology of a Multifaceted Disease

Linda L Demer et al. Circulation.

Figures

Fig. 1
Fig. 1
Schematic representation of selected regulatory factors and their possible roles in vascular biomineralization. Inorganic phosphate (Pi) translocates via Pit-1 to the cytoplasm. Cytoplasmic Ca++ and Pi incorporate with ALP into matrix vesicles, which bud off the plasma membrane and associate with extracellular proteins, such as collagen. NPP1 generates the mineralization inhibitor, pyrophosphate (PPi), which is inhibited by alkaline phosphatase. Some important factors have not been shown for clarity. Dashed arrows indicate translocation, solid-line arrows indicate induction, solid line bars indicate inhibition. Abbreviations: ALP, alkaline phosphatase; BMP, bone morphogenetic protein; BSP, bone sialoprotein; MGP, matrix Gla protein; NPP1, ectonucleotide pyrophosphatasephosphodiesterease1; OPG, osteoprotegerin; OPN, osteopontin; OCN, osteocalcin; Pi, inorganic phosphate; Pit-1, type III sodium-dependent phosphate cotransporter; PPi, pyrophosphate; PKA, protein kinase A; PTH, parathyroid hormone; ROS, reactive oxygen species.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2
Calcified nodules in vivo and in vitro. (A) Calcific aortic stenosis (Image kindly provided by Dr. Michael Fishbein, UCLA Pathology; horizontal dimension ~4 cm) and (B) Dilutionally-cloned vascular smooth muscle cells (horizontal dimension ~1 cm). The nodules correspond in shape, size, and content.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2
Calcified nodules in vivo and in vitro. (A) Calcific aortic stenosis (Image kindly provided by Dr. Michael Fishbein, UCLA Pathology; horizontal dimension ~4 cm) and (B) Dilutionally-cloned vascular smooth muscle cells (horizontal dimension ~1 cm). The nodules correspond in shape, size, and content.

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