MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and the mRNA targets of miRNAs were identified by sequence complementarity within a DNA sequence database for species of the Triticeae. Data screening identified 28 miRNA precursor sequences from 15 miRNA families that contained conserved mature miRNA sequences within predicted stem-loop structures. In addition, the identification of 337 target sequences among Triticeae genes provided further evidence of the existence of 26 miRNA families in the cereals. MicroRNA targets included genes that are homologous to known targets in diverse model species as well as novel targets. MicroRNA precursors and targets were identified in 10 related species, though the great majority of them were identified in bread wheat, Triticum aestivum, and barley, Hordeum vulgare, the two species with the largest EST data sets among the Triticeae.