A combination treatment of AAV2-hAADC with oral levodopa is a novel therapeutic approach that is being developed for late-stage Parkinson's disease. Biodistribution of AAV2-hAADC was assessed over a wide range of vector dose in 12 monkeys with parkinsonian syndrome, 6 months after intraputamenal infusion. Quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) from all the major neuroanatomical regions of the brain indicated a dose-dependent increase in vector DNA, with 99% being detected in the target site and other basal ganglia tissues. Within these tissues, the distribution varied widely between the putamen (PT) and the globus pallidus, and this was attributed to differences in vector transport. Q-PCR and immunocytochemistry were consistent with results reported earlier for various measures of transgene expression including aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) activity assays, behavioral response, and in vivo imaging with positron emission tomography (PET). Outside of the brain, trace amounts of vector DNA were detected in the spleens of animals in the two highest dose groups, but not in any other peripheral tissue, blood, or cerebrospinal fluid. Some increase in neutralizing antibody titers to adeno-associated virus type-2 (AAV2) capsid protein was observed in monkeys that received high doses of AAV2-hAADC or control AAV2-GFP. This study further validates convection-enhanced delivery (CED) as the preferred method of viral vector delivery to the brain, and supports a Phase I clinical testing of AAV2-hAADC in humans with Parkinson's disease.