The transport of monocarboxylates, such as lactate and pyruvate, is mediated by the SLC16A family of proton-linked membrane transport proteins known as monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs). Fourteen MCT-related genes have been identified in mammals and of these seven MCTs have been functionally characterized. Despite their sequence homology, only MCT1-4 have been demonstrated to be proton-dependent transporters of monocarboxylic acids. MCT6, MCT8 and MCT10 have been demonstrated to transport diuretics, thyroid hormones and aromatic amino acids, respectively. MCT1-4 vary in their regulation, tissue distribution and substrate/inhibitor specificity with MCT1 being the most extensively characterized isoform. Emerging evidence suggests that in addition to endogenous substrates, MCTs are involved in the transport of pharmaceutical agents, including gamma-hydroxybuytrate (GHB), 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins), salicylic acid, and bumetanide. MCTs are expressed in a wide range of tissues including the liver, intestine, kidney and brain, and as such they have the potential to impact a number of processes contributing to the disposition of xenobiotic substrates. GHB has been extensively studied as a pharmaceutical substrate of MCTs; the renal clearance of GHB is dose-dependent with saturation of MCT-mediated reabsorption at high doses. Concomitant administration of GHB and L: -lactate to rats results in an approximately two-fold increase in GHB renal clearance suggesting that inhibition of MCT1-mediated reabsorption of GHB may be an effective strategy for increasing renal and total GHB elimination in overdose situations. Further studies are required to more clearly define the role of MCTs on drug disposition and the potential for MCT-mediated detoxification strategies in GHB overdose.