Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is a serious health problem linked to obesity and type 2 diabetes. To investigate the biological outcome and therapeutic potential of hepatic fatty acid uptake inhibition, we utilized an adeno-associated virus-mediated RNA interference technique to knock down the expression of hepatic fatty acid transport protein 5 in vivo prior to or after establishing non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in mice. Using this approach, we demonstrate here the ability to achieve specific, non-toxic, and persistent knockdown of fatty acid transport protein 5 in mouse livers from a single adeno-associated virus injection, resulting in a marked reduction of hepatic dietary fatty acid uptake, reduced caloric uptake, and concomitant protection from diet-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Importantly, knockdown of fatty acid transport protein 5 was also able to reverse already established non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, resulting in significantly improved whole-body glucose homeostasis. Thus, continued activity of hepatic fatty acid transport protein 5 is required to sustain caloric uptake and fatty acid flux into the liver during high fat feeding and may present a novel avenue for the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.