Nine patients with Helicobacter pylori-related antral gastritis and history of duodenal ulceration were studied before and at 1 and 7 months after eradication of the infection by a 4-week course of tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate, metronidazole, and amoxycillin. The median basal gastrin concentration before eradication was 30 ng/l (range, 20-60) and fell to 20 ng/l (5-20) at 1 month (p less than 0.02) and 15 ng/l (5-20) at 7 months (p less than 0.01) after eradication. The integrated gastrin response to a peptide meal was 3650 ng/l.min (range, 1875-6025) before treatment compared with 1800 ng/l.min (range, 1200-3075) at 1 month (p less than 0.01) and 1312 ng/l.min (875-2625) at 7 months (p less than 0.03). Daytime intragastric pH (0900-2100 h) was similar before treatment (median, 1.4; range, 1.1-2.1) and at 1 month (1.4; 1.1-2.3) and 7 months (1.4; 1-2.2) after eradication. In five of the patients nighttime acid output (2300-0900 h) was also studied and was similar before (median, 86 mmol/10 h; range, 52-114) and at 1 month (76 mmol/10 h; 50-143) and 7 months (94 mmol/10 h; 63-106) after eradication. In conclusion, eradication of H. pylori is accompanied by a sustained fall in serum gastrin concentrations but is not accompanied by an early or late reduction of daytime intragastric acidity or nighttime acid output.