Patients returning to dialysis after graft loss (DAGL) are an increasing segment of the end-stage renal disease (ESRD) population. It is unclear whether patients with previous graft loss have equivalent or reduced survival from the time of restarting dialysis when compared with ESRD patients initiating dialysis for the first time. Moreover, the impact of dialysis modality on the survival of patients returning to DAGL is not known. Studies of patients with transplant graft failure returning to hemodialysis (HD) have suggested decreased survival when compared with transplant-naïve dialysis patients, yet some studies of patients with graft failure returning to peritoneal dialysis (PD) have demonstrated equivalent survival. Based on these data, it is unclear whether survival differences may exist between the dialysis modalities, and if they do, whether they can be attributed to either differences in patient characteristics or to factors related to the dialysis modalities. For patients starting back onto dialysis, in whom preservation of residual renal function is important, it is also unclear how immunosuppression reduction or transplant nephrectomy may affect survival. In this review, we will summarize the available literature on survival rates of patients returning to DAGL; compare and contrast survival after initiation of HD and PD and discuss what is known about the impact of transplant nephrectomy and the different approaches to immunosuppression reduction. Practical considerations will be discussed with a specific emphasis on patients treated by PD.