It is unclear whether health provider accreditation ensures or promotes quality of care. Using baseline data from the Quality Improvement Demonstration Study (QIDS) in the Philippines we measured the quality of pediatric care provided by private and public doctors working at the district hospital level in the country's central region. We found that national level accreditation by a national insurance program influences quality of care. However, our data also show that insurance payments have a similar, strong impact on quality of care. These results suggest that accreditation alone may not be sufficient to promote high quality of care. Further improvements may be achieved with properly monitored and well-designed payment or incentive schemes.