Evolutionary Expansion and Anatomical Specialization of Synapse Proteome Complexity

Nat Neurosci. 2008 Jul;11(7):799-806. doi: 10.1038/nn.2135. Epub 2008 Jun 8.

Abstract

Understanding the origins and evolution of synapses may provide insight into species diversity and the organization of the brain. Using comparative proteomics and genomics, we examined the evolution of the postsynaptic density (PSD) and membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK)-associated signaling complexes (MASCs) that underlie learning and memory. PSD and MASC orthologs found in yeast carry out basic cellular functions to regulate protein synthesis and structural plasticity. We observed marked changes in signaling complexity at the yeast-metazoan and invertebrate-vertebrate boundaries, with an expansion of key synaptic components, notably receptors, adhesion/cytoskeletal proteins and scaffold proteins. A proteomic comparison of Drosophila and mouse MASCs revealed species-specific adaptation with greater signaling complexity in mouse. Although synaptic components were conserved amongst diverse vertebrate species, mapping mRNA and protein expression in the mouse brain showed that vertebrate-specific components preferentially contributed to differences between brain regions. We propose that the evolution of synapse complexity around a core proto-synapse has contributed to invertebrate-vertebrate differences and to brain specialization.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins
  • Behavior, Animal
  • Brain / cytology
  • Brain / metabolism
  • Brain Mapping
  • CARD Signaling Adaptor Proteins
  • Cytoskeletal Proteins / genetics
  • Cytoskeletal Proteins / metabolism*
  • Drosophila
  • Evaluation Studies as Topic*
  • Gene Expression
  • Mice
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins / genetics
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins / metabolism*
  • Neurons / metabolism
  • Proteome*
  • Proteomics / methods
  • Signal Transduction / physiology
  • Synapses / metabolism*

Substances

  • Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins
  • CARD Signaling Adaptor Proteins
  • Cytoskeletal Proteins
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins
  • Proteome
  • Pycard protein, mouse
  • postsynaptic density proteins