HIV pandemic is one of the most serious health crises the world faces today. Approximately 5-10% of all cases of HIV are children. Majority of children acquire infection through mother-to-child transmission either during pregnancy, delivery, or by breast-feeding. MTCT can be reduced to <2% by antiretroviral prophylaxis to women during pregnancy and labour and to the infant in the first weeks of life, obstetrical interventions including elective cesarean delivery and complete avoidance of breastfeeding. Guidelines for postnatal diagnosis of HIV infection, feeding, immunization and administration of cotrimoxazole prophylaxis have been described in the protocol.