Parenteral nutrition

Indian J Pediatr. 2008 Apr;75(4):377-83. doi: 10.1007/s12098-008-0042-5. Epub 2008 May 18.


Nutritional insufficiency, leading to early growth deficits has long-lasting effects, including short stature and poor neurodevelopmental outcomes. Early enteral feeding is commonly limited by immaturity of gastrointestinal motor function in preterm neonates. To ensure that a stressed premature infant receives an adequate but not excessive amount of glucose, the amount of carbohydrate delivered in the form of dextrose is commonly initiated at the endogenous hepatic glucose production and utilization rate of 4 to 6 mg/kg/min; and 8 to 10 mg/kg/min in ELBW infants. The early provision of protein is critical to attain positive nitrogen balance and accretion as premature babies lose approximately 1% of their protein stores daily. Aminoacid can be used at concentrations of 3-3.5 g/kg/day and lipid at 3.5-4 g/kg/day as long as the fat intake remains less than 60% of nonprotein calories. Sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus need to be provided in PN solution as per their daily needs. Hospital-acquired infection (HAI) is a major complication of PN. All efforts should be made to avoid it.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Anthropometry
  • Body Weight / physiology
  • Energy Intake
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Infant, Premature*
  • Infant, Very Low Birth Weight
  • Intensive Care Units, Neonatal
  • Male
  • Nutritional Requirements*
  • Parenteral Nutrition / adverse effects
  • Parenteral Nutrition / methods*
  • Risk Assessment
  • Weight Gain*