Purpose: We evaluated the effect of potential clinical factors on surgical recurrence of ileal Crohn's disease after initial ileocolic resection.
Methods: One hundred seventy-six patients with ileal Crohn's disease who underwent an ileocolic resection with anastomosis were identified from our database. The outcome of interest was time from first to second ileocolic resection. Survival analysis was used to assess the significance of the Montreal phenotype classification, smoking habit, a family history of inflammatory bowel disease and other clinical variables.
Results: In our final Cox model, a family history of inflammatory bowel disease (hazard ratio 2.24, 95 percent confidence interval 1.16-4.30, P = 0.016), smoking at time of initial ileocolic resection (hazard ratio 2.08, 95 percent confidence interval 1.11-3.91, P = 0.023) was associated with an increased risk of a second ileocolic resection while postoperative prescription of immunomodulators (hazard ratio 0.40, 95 percent confidence interval 0.18-0.88, P = 0.022) was associated with a decreased risk of a second ileocolic resection.
Conclusions: Both a family history of inflammatory bowel disease and smoking at the time of the initial ileocolic resection are associated with an increased risk of a second ileocolic resection. Postoperative prescription of immunomodulators is associated with a reduced risk of surgical recurrence. This study supports the concept that both genetic and environmental factors influence the risk of surgical recurrence of ileal Crohn's disease.