Hydrogel fibers that possessed a cell-adhesive surface and were degradable via enzymatic reactions were developed for fabricating tubular constructs with smooth muscle cell (SMC) and endothelial cell (EC) layers, similar to native blood vessels, in collagen gels. The fibers were prepared by soaking hydrogel fibers prepared from a solution of sodium alginate and gelatin containing bovine ECs (BECs) in medium containing oxidized alginate (AO). BECs soaked in 8.0% (w/v) AO showed no reduction in viability within 3 h of soaking. Furthermore, mouse SMCs (MSMCs) adhered and proliferated on the AO-cross-linked hydrogels. Based on these results, we prepared AO-cross-linked hydrogel fibers containing BECs, covered their surface with MSMCs, and embedded them in collagen gels. We then degraded the fibers using alginate lyase to obtain channels in the collagen gels. Histological analysis of the released ECs using a specific fluorescent dye revealed the formation of tubular structures with layered BECs and MSMCs.