Rugby football continues to grow in popularity internation- ally and within the United States. In 1995, rugby union, one form of rugby, turned from amateur to professional through- out Europe, increasing the potential for monetary reward, which, in turn, secondary to higher levels of play, increased the risk of injury. With this increased higher interest and the increasing number of inexperienced and professional players in the U.S., there is a need for a comprehensive analysis of professional rugby union injury in the American literature and increased awareness of rugby injuries, in general, for all levels of players. This paper provides an in-depth analysis of professional rugby union injuries that will assist ortho- paedic surgeons treating these injuries in the U.S. The data described highlights the potential impact of rugby injury in the U.S. and provides an overview of the international data to serve as the basis for future American studies. An additional goal of this review is to stimulate discussion regarding the necessity of implementing additional safety precautions for this high-risk sport. Finally, this analysis highlights the in- consistencies and discrepancies of the literature with respect to rugby union injury and the variability and weak interstudy reproducibility of current rugby injury data.