The expression of chemokine receptors and chemokine production by adult human non-transformed astrocytes, grade III astrocytoma and grade IV glioblastoma tumour cell lines were determined. Here, we show an increased expression of CXCR3 and CXCR4, and a decreased expression of CXCR1 and CCR4 by glioma cells compared to adult human astrocytes. Glioma cells showed increased production of CXCL10, whereas production of other chemokines was decreased (CXCL8, CCL2, CCL5, and CCL22). CXCL10 induced an ERK1/2-dependent increase in [(3)H] thymidine uptake. These results suggest that expression of chemokine receptor/ligand pairs such as CXCR3/CXCL10 have an important role in the proliferation of glioma cells.