Markers of inflammation in sarcoidosis: blood, urine, BAL, sputum, and exhaled gas

Clin Chest Med. 2008 Sep;29(3):445-58, viii. doi: 10.1016/j.ccm.2008.03.004.


Sarcoidosis is characterized by intense inflammation at the different sites of localization. Many different mediators, such as cytokines, chemokines, and other proteins with various functions, that participate in its complex pathogenesis have been proposed as markers of inflammation. This article examines the principal literature on these different markers analyzed in serum, bronchoalveolar lavage, expired breath, and urine. After many years of research, no single marker sufficiently sensitive and specific for diagnosis of sarcoidosis has yet been found. Greater correlation with clinical parameters is needed and proper validation.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Biomarkers / analysis*
  • Biomarkers / blood
  • Biomarkers / urine
  • Breath Tests / methods*
  • Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid / chemistry*
  • Humans
  • Sarcoidosis, Pulmonary / metabolism*
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • Sputum / metabolism*


  • Biomarkers