The Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Complex and the Control of Gene Expression

Crit Rev Eukaryot Gene Expr. 2008;18(3):207-50. doi: 10.1615/critreveukargeneexpr.v18.i3.20.

Abstract

The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that controls the expression of a diverse set of genes. The toxicity of the potent AhR ligand 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin is almost exclusively mediated through this receptor. However, the key alterations in gene expression that mediate toxicity are poorly understood. It has been established through characterization of AhR-null mice that the AhR has a required physiological function, yet how endogenous mediators regulate this orphan receptor remains to be established. A picture as to how the AhR/ARNT heterodimer actually mediates gene transcription is starting to emerge. The AhR/ARNT complex can alter transcription both by binding to its cognate response element and through tethering to other transcription factors. In addition, many of the coregulatory proteins necessary for AhR-mediated transcription have been identified. Cross talk between the estrogen receptor and the AhR at the promoter of target genes appears to be an important mode of regulation. Inflammatory signaling pathways and the AhR also appear to be another important site of cross talk at the level of transcription. A major focus of this review is to highlight experimental efforts to characterize nonclassical mechanisms of AhR-mediated modulation of gene transcription.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Nuclear Translocator
  • Cloning, Molecular
  • Estrogen Receptor alpha / genetics
  • Estrogen Receptor alpha / metabolism
  • Gene Expression Regulation*
  • HSP90 Heat-Shock Proteins / genetics
  • HSP90 Heat-Shock Proteins / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Models, Biological
  • Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon / genetics
  • Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon / metabolism*
  • Signal Transduction
  • Trans-Activators / genetics
  • Trans-Activators / metabolism
  • Transcription, Genetic

Substances

  • Estrogen Receptor alpha
  • HSP90 Heat-Shock Proteins
  • Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon
  • Trans-Activators
  • hepatitis B virus X protein
  • Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Nuclear Translocator