Transmitted drug resistant HIV-1 and association with virologic and CD4 cell count response to combination antiretroviral therapy in the EuroSIDA Study

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2008 Jul 1;48(3):324-33. doi: 10.1097/QAI.0b013e31817ae5c0.


Objectives: To investigate prevalence of transmitted drug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus (TDR) and factors associated with TDR and to compare virological and CD4 count response to combination antiretroviral therapy.

Methods: In this study, 525 mostly chronically infected EuroSIDA patients were included who had genotypic resistance tests performed on plasma samples collected while antiretroviral therapy naive. TDR was defined as at least one resistance mutation from a list proposed for genotypic TDR surveillance. Multivariable logistic regression was used to analyze factors associated with detection of TDR, with virological (viral load<500 copies/mL) and CD4 count response (>or=50% increase) to combination antiretroviral therapy at months 6-12.

Results: The overall prevalence of TDR was 11.4%, which was stable over 1996-2004. There were no significant differences in virological suppression (those resistant to at least one drug prescribed versus susceptible), adjusted odds ratio: 0.68 (95% confidence interval: 0.27 to 1.71; P=0.408) or CD4 count response, adjusted odds ratio: 1.65 (95% confidence interval: 0.73 to 3.73; P=0.231).

Conclusions: Prevalence of TDR in antiretroviral-naive patients was found to be in line with other European studies. No significant differences were found in virological and CD4 count response after initiation of first-line combination antiretroviral therapy between resistant and susceptible patients, possibly due to the small number of patients with resistance and consequently low power.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Comparative Study
  • Multicenter Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Retroviral Agents / administration & dosage*
  • CD4 Lymphocyte Count*
  • Drug Resistance, Multiple, Viral*
  • Drug Therapy, Combination
  • Female
  • HIV Infections / immunology
  • HIV Infections / transmission*
  • HIV Infections / virology
  • HIV-1 / drug effects*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Viral Load


  • Anti-Retroviral Agents