The objective of the present experiment was to evaluate the effect on hard tissue modeling and remodeling of the placement of a xenograft in fresh extraction sockets in dogs. Five mongrel dogs were used. Two mandibular premolars (4P4) were hemisected in each dog, and the distal roots were carefully removed. In one socket, a graft consisting of Bio-Oss Collagen (Geistlich) was placed, whereas the contralateral site was left without grafting. After 3 months of healing, the dogs were euthanized and biopsies sampled. From each experimental site, four ground sections (two from the mesial root and two from the healed socket) were prepared, stained, and examined under the microscope. The presence of Bio-Oss Collagen failed to inhibit the processes of modeling and remodeling that took place in the socket walls following tooth extraction. However, it apparently promoted de novo hard tissue formation, particularly in the cortical region of the extraction site. Thus, the dimension of the hard tissue was maintained and the profile of the ridge was better preserved. The placement of a biomaterial in an extraction socket may promote bone modeling and compensate, at least temporarily, for marginal ridge contraction.