Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and it is prevalent in children with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and after renal transplantation (RTx) on cross-sectional studies. Our aim was to compare prospectively left ventricular mass index (LVMI) in children with ESRD, before and after RTx. Thirteen patients aged 1.5-15 years underwent echocardiogram prior to and at least 3 months after RTx, and again in the second year after transplantation. A control group consisted of children with ESRD who remained on dialysis. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure index decreased significantly over the study period only in the children who had undergone RTx. Mean LVMI in children with ESRD decreased from 45.4 +/- 12.6 g/m(2.7) to 34.9 +/- 10.4 g/m(2.7) after RTx (P = 0.001), but it remained unchanged in patients who remained on dialysis. The prevalence of LVH decreased from 54% to 8% (P = 0.03) after RTx. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure index were correlated with LVMI. Mean body mass index increased during the study period from 17.3 +/- 2.5 to 20 +/- 4.6 (P = 0.05); however, no correlation was found with LVMI. LVH in children with ESRD is potentially reversible after RTx, especially with good control of hypertension.