Screening differences and risk of cervical cancer in inflammatory bowel disease

Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2008 Sep 1;28(5):598-605. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2036.2008.03766.x. Epub 2008 Jun 28.


Background: Cervical cancer risk is high among immune suppressed women.

Aim: To evaluate inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) with medications and risk of cervical cancer.

Methods: Members of Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC), 15-68 years from 1996 to 2006 with IBD were compared with age-matched women without IBD. Cervical cancer was ascertained using the KPNC Cancer Registry. IBD medications of interest were aminosalicylates (ASA), corticosteroids, immune modulators and infliximab. Odds of cervical cancer were analysed with adjusted logistic regression. The prevalence of Pap smear testing was compared using a log binomial model.

Results: Ten cervical cancer cases occurred among 1165 women with IBD and 72 cancers among 12 124 controls. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) of IBD with risk of cervical cancer was 1.45 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.74-2.84]. Medication ORs were 1.65 for ASA, 2.79 for corticosteroids and 3.45 for immune modulators (all P > 0.05). No cancer case used infliximab. The adjusted absolute increase in Pap smears among IBD women compared to women without IBD was 4% (95% CI 2-5%).

Conclusions: Although a trend of elevated risk for cervical cancer with IBD and IBD medications was observed, it was not statistically significant. Regular cervical cancer screening for women with IBD is recommended.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • California / epidemiology
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Immunosuppression Therapy
  • Immunosuppressive Agents / adverse effects*
  • Inflammatory Bowel Diseases / drug therapy*
  • Inflammatory Bowel Diseases / epidemiology
  • Inflammatory Bowel Diseases / immunology
  • Male
  • Mass Screening
  • Middle Aged
  • Risk Assessment
  • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / chemically induced*
  • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / immunology


  • Immunosuppressive Agents