Results of well-controlled prospective clinical trials showed the efficacy of lipid-lowering therapies in the reduction of cardiovascular (CV) events in western populations, but they were not reported with a Chinese population. This multicenter study was conducted to determine the effects of Xuezhikang (XZK), a partially purified extract of red yeast rice, on lipoprotein and CV end points in Chinese patients who experienced a previous myocardial infarction. Nearly 5,000 of these patients with average low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels at baseline were randomly assigned either to placebo or to XZK daily for an average of 4.5 years. The primary end point was a major coronary event that included nonfatal myocardial infarction and death from coronary heart disease. Frequencies of the primary end point were 10.4% in the placebo group and 5.7% in the XZK-treated group, with absolute and relative decreases of 4.7% and 45%, respectively. Treatment with XZK also significantly decreased CV and total mortality by 30% and 33%, the need for coronary revascularization by 1/3, and lowered total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides, but raised high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. In conclusion, long-term therapy with XZK significantly decreased the recurrence of coronary events and the occurrence of new CV events and deaths, improved lipoprotein regulation, and was safe and well tolerated.