Health and economic outcomes of HPV 16,18 vaccination in 72 GAVI-eligible countries

Vaccine. 2008 Jul 29;26(32):4080-93. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.04.053. Epub 2008 May 15.


The risk of dying from cervical cancer is disproportionately borne by women in developing countries. Two new vaccines are highly effective in preventing HPV 16,18 infection, responsible for approximately 70% of cervical cancer, in girls not previously infected. The GAVI Alliance (GAVI) provides technical assistance and financial support for immunization in the world's poorest countries. Using population-based and epidemiologic data for 72 GAVI-eligible countries we estimate averted cervical cancer cases and deaths, disability-adjusted years of life (DALYs) averted and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (I$/DALY averted) associated with HPV 16,18 vaccination of young adolescent girls. In addition to vaccine coverage and efficacy, relative and absolute cancer reduction depended on underlying incidence, proportion attributable to HPV types 16 and 18, population age-structure and competing mortality. With 70% coverage, mean reduction in the lifetime risk of cancer is below 40% in some countries (e.g., Nigeria, Ghana) and above 50% in others (e.g., India, Uganda, Kenya). At I$10 per vaccinated girl (approximately $2.00 per dose assuming three doses, plus wastage, administration, program support) vaccination was cost-effective in all countries using a per capita GDP threshold; for 49 of 72 countries, the cost per DALY averted was less than I$100 and for 59 countries, it was less than I$200. Taking into account country-specific assumptions (per capita GNI, DPT3 coverage, percentage of girls who are enrolled in fifth grade) for the year of introduction, percent coverage achieved in the first year, and years to maximum coverage, a 10-year modeled scenario prevented the future deaths of approximately 2 million women vaccinated as adolescents. Despite favorable cost-effectiveness, assessment of financial costs raised concerns about affordability; as the cost per vaccinated girl was increased from I$10 to I$25 (approximately $2 to $5 per dose), the financial costs for the 10-year scenario increased from >US$ 900 million to US$ 2.25 billion. Provided high coverage of young adolescent girls is feasible, and vaccine costs are lowered, HPV 16,18 vaccination could be very cost-effective even in the poorest countries, and provide comparable value for resources to other new vaccines such as rotavirus.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Developing Countries*
  • Female
  • Human papillomavirus 16 / immunology*
  • Human papillomavirus 18 / immunology*
  • Humans
  • Models, Economic
  • Papillomavirus Infections / economics
  • Papillomavirus Infections / epidemiology
  • Papillomavirus Infections / prevention & control*
  • Papillomavirus Vaccines / administration & dosage
  • Papillomavirus Vaccines / economics*
  • Papillomavirus Vaccines / immunology*
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / economics
  • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / prevention & control
  • Vaccination / economics
  • Vaccination / methods


  • Papillomavirus Vaccines