Neonatal hearts respond to stress and function in an environment quite different from adult hearts. There is evidence that these functional differences not only reflect modifications in the abundance and isoforms of sarcomeric proteins but also in the modulation of sarcomeric protein phosphorylation. Yet our understanding of changes in sarcomeric protein phosphorylation in development is incomplete. In the experiments reported here, we first quantified the intact sarcomeric protein phosphorylation status between neonatal and adult rat hearts by employing comparative two-dimensional (2-D) gel electrophoresis in conjunction with phosphoprotein-specific staining. Subsequently, we measured phosphorylation changes at the peptide level by employing high-resolution linear ion trap-Fourier transform (LTQ-FT) mass spectrometry analysis of titanium dioxide-enriched phosphopeptides differentially labeled with (16)O/(18)O during in-gel digestion. We also employed Western blot analysis using phosphorylation site-specific antibodies to measure phosphorylation changes. Our data demonstrated the novel finding that phosphorylation levels of myosin-binding protein C (MyBP-C) at Ser(295) and Ser(315) as well as tropomyosin at Ser(283) increased, whereas phosphorylation levels of MyBP-C at Ser(320) and myosin light chain 2 at Ser(15) decreased in neonatal hearts compared with the same sites in adult hearts. Although our data highlight the significant challenges in understanding relations between protein phosphorylation and cardiac function, they do support the hypothesis that developmental changes in the modulation of protein are functionally significant and correlate with the prevailing physiological state.