Very long-chain fatty acids are produced through a four-step cycle. However, the 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydratase catalyzing the third step in mammals has remained unidentified. Mammals have four candidates, HACD1-4, based on sequence similarities to the recently identified yeast Phs1, although HACD3 and HACD4 share relatively weak similarity. We demonstrate that all four of these human proteins are indeed 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydratases, in growth suppression experiments using a PHS1-shut off yeast strain and/or in vitro 3-hydroxypalmitoyl-CoA dehydratase assays. HACD proteins exhibit distinct tissue-expression patterns. We also establish that HACD proteins interact with the condensation enzymes ELOVL1-7, with some preferences.