This trial evaluated the effects of 16 weeks of consumption of 1000mg rebaudioside A (n=60) a steviol glycoside with potential use as a sweetener, compared to placebo (n=62) in men and women (33-75 years of age) with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Mean+/-standard error changes in glycosylated hemoglobin levels did not differ significantly between the rebaudioside A (0.11+/-0.06%) and placebo (0.09+/-0.05%; p=0.355) groups. Changes from baseline for rebaudioside A and placebo, respectively, in fasting glucose (7.5+/-3.7mg/dL and 11.2+/-4.5mg/dL), insulin (1.0+/-0.64microU/mL and 3.3+/-1.5microU/mL), and C-peptide (0.13+/-0.09ng/mL and 0.42+/-0.14ng/mL) did not differ significantly (p>0.05 for all). Assessments of changes in blood pressure, body weight, and fasting lipids indicated no differences by treatment. Rebaudioside A was well-tolerated, and records of hypoglycemic episodes showed no excess vs. placebo. These results suggest that chronic use of 1000mg rebaudioside A does not alter glucose homeostasis or blood pressure in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus.