Arrhythmia in early post cardiac surgery in pediatrics: Siriraj experience

J Med Assoc Thai. 2008 Apr;91(4):507-14.

Abstract

Objectives: To determine the incidence, risk factors and outcome of early postoperative arrhythmias in pediatric patients with congenital heart disease.

Material and method: A prospective study was conducted in every pediatric patient who consecutively underwent open-heart surgery at Siriraj Hospital from January 1st to December 31st, 2006. The collected data were demographic data, diagnosis, pre-operative arrhythmia, cardiac surgical data and continuous electrocardiographic monitoring data throughout the post operative intensive care period.

Results: A total of 191 pediatric patients underwent cardiac surgery. Forty-five cases (23.5%) developed early post operative cardiac arrhythmias i.e. junctional ectopic tachycardia 18 cases (40%), heart block 7 cases (15.6%), supraventricular tachycardia 2 cases (4.4%). Cardiac arrhythmia occurred mostly within 24 hours after the operation. Patients with single ventricle physiology repaired developed the highest incidence of acute post operative arrhythmia (36.4%). Longer, cardiopulmonary bypass time- and redo-operation were the risk factors. Thirty-nine cases were treated with medications, 7 cases with temporary pacing, and 1 case with electrical cardioversion. Four patients needed long-term anti-arrhythmic agents. Cardiac arrhythmia played role in the causes of death in 2 cases (1.1% of total cases).

Conclusions: Post operative arrhythmias remained common and important complications of pediatric open-heart surgery. Long cardiopulmonary bypass time and redo-operation were risk factors for early post operative arrhythmia.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Arrhythmias, Cardiac / etiology*
  • Atrioventricular Block / etiology
  • Child
  • Child Welfare
  • Female
  • Heart Defects, Congenital / surgery*
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Male
  • Postoperative Complications*
  • Prospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Tachycardia, Ectopic Junctional / etiology
  • Thailand
  • Thoracic Surgery
  • Time Factors