Five types of dopamine receptors, termed D1 to D5, have been identified to date. The D1 and D5 receptors form the D1-like group that couples with the Galphas class of G proteins, while D2, D3 and D4 form the D2-like group that couples with the Galphai class of G proteins. A D2-like-receptor (D2-like-R) antagonist L750667 induced dendritic cell (DC)-mediated Th17 differentiation. In contrast, a D1-like-R antagonist SCH23390 inhibited DC-mediated Th17 differentiation. The D1-like-Rs were expressed on both DCs and T cells, whereas D2-like-Rs were marginally expressed on CD4+CD45RA+ naïve T cells. In addition, SCH23390 had the ability to prevent experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in mice. Spleen cells from EAE mice showed decreased IL-17 production, when SCH23390 was administered. Adoptive transfer of DCs treated with SCH23390 successfully prevented EAE. These findings indicate that antagonizing D1-like-Rs on DCs inhibits Th17 differentiation, thereby leading to an amelioration of EAE.