Many children in war-affected and refugee populations have experienced multiple traumatic experiences, and high rates of psychologic disorders, especially posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), are found. Intervention strategies require pragmatic and effective approaches to treatment. This article describes the rationale for and the use of narrative exposure therapy in children (KidNET). KidNET is a short-term treatment for PTSD based on a neurocognitive theory of traumatic memory. Early treatment trials, including randomized controlled studies, show promising results for the treatment of children and adolescents who have PTSD living in war-affected countries and refugee communities.