We have developed an analytical system that enables the simultaneous rapid analysis of lipids with varied structures and polarities through the use of supercritical fluid chromatography-mass spectrometry (SFC-MS). The separation conditions for SFC (column, modifier, back pressure, etc.) and the detection conditions for mass spectrometry (ionization method, parameters, etc.) were investigated to develop a simultaneous analytical method for lipid mixtures that included phospholipids, glycolipids, neutral lipids, and sphingolipids. When cyanopropylated silica gel-packed column was used for the separation, all lipids were successfully detected and the analysis time was less than 15 min. The use of an octadecylsilylated column resulted in separation, which was dependent on the differences in the unsaturation of the fatty acid side chains and isomer separation. This system is a powerful tool for studies on lipid metabolomics because it is useful not only as a fingerprinting method for the screening of diverse lipids but also for the detailed profiling of individual components.