Alpha-herpesviruses, including herpes simplex virus and pseudorabies virus (PRV), infect the peripheral nervous system (PNS) of their hosts. Here, we describe an in vitro method for studying neuron-to-cell spread of infection as well as viral transport in axons. The method centers on a novel microfluidic chamber system that directs growth of axons into a fluidically isolated environment. The system uses substantially smaller amounts of virus inoculum and media than previous chamber systems and yet offers the flexibility of applying multiple virology and cell biology assays including live-cell optical imaging. Using PRV infection of cultured PNS neurons, we demonstrate that the microfluidic chamber recapitulates all known facets of neuron-to-cell spread demonstrated in animals and other compartmented cell systems.