Development of a three-dimensionally movable phantom system for dosimetric verifications

Med Phys. 2008 May;35(5):1643-50. doi: 10.1118/1.2897971.


The authors developed a three-dimensionally movable phantom system (3D movable phantom system) which can reproduce three-dimensional movements to experimentally verify the impact of radiotherapy treatment-related movements on dose distribution. The phantom system consists of three integrated components: a three-dimensional driving mechanism (3D driving mechanism), computer control system, and phantoms for film dosimetry. The 3D driving mechanism is a quintessential part of this system. It is composed of three linear-motion tables (single-axis robots) which are joined orthogonally to each other. This mechanism has a motion range of 100 mm, with a maximum velocity of 200 mm/s in each dimension, and 3D motion ability of arbitrary patterns. These attributes are sufficient to reproduce almost all organ movements. The positional accuracy of this 3D movable phantom system in a state of geostationary is less than 0.1 mm. The maximum error in terms of the absolute position on movement was 0.56 mm. The positional reappearance error on movement was up to 0.23 mm. The observed fluctuation of time was 0.012 s in the cycle of 4.5 s of oscillation. These results suggested that the 3D movable phantom system exhibited a sufficient level of accuracy in terms of geometry and timing to reproduce interfractional organ movement or setup errors in order to assess the influence of these errors on high-precision radiotherapy such as stereotactic irradiation and intensity-modulated radiotherapy. In addition, the authors 3D movable phantom system will also be useful in evaluating the adequacy and efficacy of new treatment techniques such as gating or tracking radiotherapy.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Algorithms
  • Film Dosimetry / methods
  • Humans
  • Imaging, Three-Dimensional
  • Models, Theoretical
  • Movement
  • Phantoms, Imaging*
  • Radiometry / instrumentation
  • Radiometry / methods*
  • Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted / instrumentation
  • Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted / methods*
  • Radiotherapy, Conformal / instrumentation
  • Radiotherapy, Conformal / methods*
  • Reproducibility of Results