(+)-Catechin inhibits tumour angiogenesis and regulates the production of nitric oxide and TNF-alpha in LPS-stimulated macrophages

Innate Immun. 2008 Jun;14(3):160-74. doi: 10.1177/1753425908093295.


The anti-angiogenic activity of (+)-catechin as well as its regulatory effect on the production of nitric oxide and TNFalpha were studied using in vivo and in vitro models. In vivo angiogenic activity was studied using B16F-10 melanoma cell-induced capillary formation in C57BL/6 mice. Administration of (+)-catechin significantly inhibited (36.09%) the number of tumour-directed capillaries induced by injecting B16F-10 melanoma cells on the ventral side of C57BL/6 mice. The cytokine profile in the serum of these animals showed a drastically increased level of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1 beta, IL-6, TNF-alpha, GM-CSF and the direct endothelial cell proliferating agent, VEGF. Administration of (+)-catechin could differentially regulate elevation of these cytokines. The differential elevation is further evidenced by the increased production of IL-2 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) in the B16F-10 injected, (+)-catechin-treated animals. In vitro L929 bioassay revealed the inhibition of TNF-alpha production by (+)-catechin treatment. In the rat aortic ring assay, (+)-catechin inhibited the microvessel outgrowth at non-toxic concentrations. (+)-Catechin at non-toxic concentrations (5-25 microg/ml) showed significant inhibition in the proliferation, migration and tube formation of endothelial cells, which are the key events in the process of angiogenesis. (+)-Catechin also showed inhibitory effect on VEGF mRNA levels in B16F-10 melanoma cells. (+)-Catechin inhibited the production of NO and TNF-alpha in LPS-stimulated primary macrophages. Taken together, these results demonstrate that (+)-catechin inhibits tumour-specific angiogenesis by regulating the production of pro- and anti-angiogenic factors such as pro-inflammatory cytokines, nitric oxide, VEGF, IL-2 and TIMP-1. These results also suggest that (+)-catechin could significantly inhibit nitrite and TNF-alpha production in LPS-stimulated macrophages.

MeSH terms

  • Angiogenesis Inhibitors / pharmacology*
  • Animals
  • Aorta / cytology
  • Aorta / drug effects
  • Catechin / pharmacology*
  • Cell Movement / drug effects
  • Cell Proliferation / drug effects
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Endothelial Cells / cytology
  • Endothelial Cells / drug effects
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / drug effects
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / genetics
  • Humans
  • Interleukin-2 / metabolism
  • Lipopolysaccharides / pharmacology*
  • Macrophages / drug effects*
  • Macrophages / metabolism*
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Neoplasm Transplantation
  • Neoplasms / blood supply
  • Neoplasms / genetics
  • Neoplasms / metabolism
  • Neoplasms / pathology
  • Nitric Oxide / biosynthesis*
  • Nitrites / blood
  • RNA, Messenger / genetics
  • Rats
  • Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1 / metabolism
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / biosynthesis*
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / genetics


  • Angiogenesis Inhibitors
  • Interleukin-2
  • Lipopolysaccharides
  • Nitrites
  • RNA, Messenger
  • Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
  • Nitric Oxide
  • Catechin