Interleukin 23 (IL-23) is integral to the pathogenesis of chronic inflammation. The resolution of acute inflammation is an active process mediated by specific signals and mediators such as resolvin E1 (RvE1). Here we provide evidence that RvE1, in nanogram quantities, promoted the resolution of inflammatory airway responses in part by directly suppressing the production of IL-23 and IL-6 in the lung. Also contributing to the pro-resolution effects of RvE1 treatment were higher concentrations of interferon-gamma in the lungs of RvE1-treated mice. Our findings indicate a pivotal function for IL-23 and IL-6, which promote the survival and differentiation of IL-17-producing T helper cells, in maintaining inflammation and also identify an RvE1-initiated resolution program for allergic airway responses.