The presence of bound water molecules in the solution structure of reduced human thioredoxin has been investigated using three-dimensional 1H rotating frame Overhauser 1H-15N multiple quantum coherence spectroscopy. It is demonstrated that the backbone amide protons of Lys21, Lys39, Lys82, Gly83 and Asn102, as well as the side-chain amide group of Asn102, are in close proximity to bound water molecules. Examination of the high-resolution solution structure of reduced human thioredoxin reveals that these results are best accounted for by four bound water molecules. Subsequent simulated annealing calculations carried out on the basis of interproton distance and hydrogen bonding restraints to the bound water molecules, supplemented by the original set of experimental restraints used in the calculation of the three-dimensional structure of human thioredoxin, permit a more precise localization of the bound water positions. Potential hydrogen bonds to these water molecules are described and a comparison is made to corresponding bound water molecules in the crystal structure of oxidized Escherichia coli thioredoxin.