The five D's of botulinum toxin: doses, dilution, diffusion, duration and dogma

J Cosmet Laser Ther. 2008 Jun;10(2):93-102. doi: 10.1080/14764170701883660.


The purpose of this review is to update cosmetic dermatologists and surgeons on the latest information about botulinum toxin injections for the treatment of the face and neck and to provide a practical guide to effective and safe technique. We review indications, recommended doses and dilutions, storage recommendations and injection techniques.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Botulinum Toxins, Type A / administration & dosage
  • Botulinum Toxins, Type A / therapeutic use*
  • Cosmetic Techniques*
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Drug Storage
  • Face*
  • Humans
  • Neck*
  • Patient Selection
  • Skin Aging / drug effects*


  • Botulinum Toxins, Type A