To clarify the physical and mental fatigue caused by intense exercise and the relationship between the two types of fatigue, we examined changes in anthropometric and biochemical variables, neutrophil function, and the Profile of Mood States (POMS) questionnaire in 13 female university judoists attending a one-week training camp. Blood glucose, total cholesterol, haemoglobin, leukocyte count, IgG, and phagocytic activity all decreased after the training camp compared with baseline (P < or = 0.046). Aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, and neutrophil oxidative burst activity increased after the training camp (P < or = 0.007). Of the POMS scores, that for Fatigue increased after the training camp (P = 0.041) and that for Vigour decreased (P = 0.042). The changes in several POMS scores correlated with the changes in blood biochemical variables. In particular, the change in Total mood disturbance was negatively associated with changes in myogenic enzymes (P < or = 0.032). Our results suggest that intense exercise during training camps for female judoists leads to the appearance and accumulation of mental and physical fatigue, which are related to each other.