Factors associated with smoking in Asian American adults: a systematic review

Nicotine Tob Res. 2008 May;10(5):791-801. doi: 10.1080/14622200802027230.


This review systematically examined the factors associated with smoking in Asian American adults (aged > or =17 years). A total of 21 quantitative studies published in peer-reviewed journals from 1997 to 2006 were reviewed and abstracted using the matrix method. Statistically significant factors reported by the studies were summarized. Methodological quality of the studies also was assessed (maximum possible score = 10). Acculturation and education were the most frequently reported factors (n = 10, 47.6%). Acculturation was negatively associated with men's smoking but was positively associated with women's smoking. Education was uniformly found to be negatively related to smoking. Age was reported to have either a positive or a negative relationship with smoking (n = 9, 42.9%). Men were more likely to smoke than women (n = 7, 33.3%). The mean methodological score of the reviewed studies was 4.14 (on a scale of 1-10 points; SD = 1.62; range = 2-8). Health promotion professionals need to consider the summarized factors associated with Asian American adults' smoking behavior when planning smoking prevention programs and when recruiting participants for smoking cessation programs. When addressing acculturation, program planners should design different health education materials and use different strategies for men and women. To identify, understand, and incorporate essential factors into effective interventions, future studies should aim at higher methodological quality by using longitudinal design and increasing the use of theory, the test of data validity and reliability, and the report of effect sizes.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Acculturation*
  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Asian Americans / statistics & numerical data*
  • Educational Status
  • Female
  • Health Behavior / ethnology
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Risk Factors
  • Sex Factors
  • Smoking / ethnology*
  • Smoking Prevention
  • United States / epidemiology