Repeated exposure to serotonin (5-HT), an endogenous neurotransmitter that mediates behavioral sensitization in Aplysia[1-3], induces long-term facilitation (LTF) of the Aplysia sensorimotor synapse . LTF, a prominent form of invertebrate synaptic plasticity, is believed to play a major role in long-term learning in Aplysia. Until now, LTF has been thought to be due predominantly to cellular processes activated by 5-HT within the presynaptic sensory neuron . Recent work indicates that LTF depends on the increased expression and release of a sensory neuron-specific neuropeptide, sensorin . Sensorin released during LTF appears to bind to autoreceptors on the sensory neuron, thereby activating critical presynaptic signals, including mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) [8, 9]. Here, we show that LTF depends on elevated postsynaptic Ca2+ and postsynaptic protein synthesis. Furthermore, we find that the increased expression of presynaptic sensorin resulting from 5-HT stimulation requires elevation of postsynaptic intracellular Ca2+. Our results represent perhaps the strongest evidence to date that the increased expression of a specific presynaptic neuropeptide during LTF is regulated by retrograde signals.