Radiation hybrid (RH) mapping provides a powerful tool to build high-resolution maps of genomes. Here, we demonstrate the use of the AFLP technique for high-throughput typing of RH cell lines. Cattle were used as the model species because an RH panel was available to investigate the behaviour of AFLP markers within the microsatellite- and STS-based maps of this species. A total of 747 AFLP markers were typed on the TM112 RH radiation panel and 651 of these were assigned by two-point analysis to the 29 bovine autosomes and sex chromosomes. AFLP markers were added to the 1222 microsatellite and STS markers that were included in earlier RH maps. Multipoint maps were constructed for seven example chromosomes, which retained 248 microsatellite and STS markers, and added 123 AFLP markers at LOD 4. The addition of the AFLP markers increased the number of markers by 42.1% and the map length by 10.4%. The AFLP markers showed lower retention frequency (RF) values than the STS markers. The comparison of RF values in AFLP markers and their corresponding AFLP-derived STSs demonstrated that the lower RF values were due to the lower detection sensitivity of the AFLP technique. Despite these differences, AFLP and AFLP-derived STS markers mapped to identical or similar positions. These results demonstrate that it is possible to merge AFLP and microsatellite markers in the same map. The application of AFLP technology could permit the rapid construction of RH maps in species for which extensive genome information and large numbers of SNP and microsatellite markers are not available.