To address the shortage of research-trained pharmaceutical scientists (or doctor of pharmacy [Pharm.D.] scientists), a 2-day pharmacy research conference titled "Pharm.D. Pathways to Biomedical Research" was convened on December 13-14, 2006, at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) campus (Bethesda, MD). The workshop included invited speakers and participants from academia, industry, and government. Forty-two pharmacy schools were represented, including deans and clinical pharmaceutical scientists with current NIH funding. In addition, several pharmacy professional organizations were represented--American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy, American College of Clinical Pharmacy, American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, and the Accreditation Council on Pharmaceutical Education. The workshop was divided into three sessions followed by breakout discussion groups: the first session focused on presentations by leading pharmaceutical scientists who described their path to success; the second session examined the NIH grant system, particularly as it relates to training opportunities in biomedical research and funding mechanisms; and the third session addressed biomedical research education and training from the perspective of scientific societies and academia. We summarize the discussions and findings from the workshop and highlight some important considerations for the future of research in the pharmacy community. This report also puts forth recommendations for educating future pharmaceutical scientists.