We determined the effects of intravenous infusion of amino acids (AA) at serum insulin of 5, 30, 72, and 167 mU/l on anabolic signaling, expression of ubiquitin-proteasome components, and protein turnover in muscles of healthy young men. Tripling AA availability at 5 mU/l insulin doubled incorporation of [1-(13)C]leucine [i.e., muscle protein synthesis (MPS), P < 0.01] without affecting the rate of leg protein breakdown (LPB; appearance of d(5)-phenylalanine). While keeping AA availability constant, increasing insulin to 30 mU/l halved LPB (P < 0.05) without further inhibition at higher doses, whereas rates of MPS were identical to that at 5 mU/l insulin. The phosphorylation of PKB Ser(473) and p70(S6k) Thr(389) increased concomitantly with insulin, but whereas raising insulin to 30 mU/l increased the phosphorylation of mTOR Ser(2448), 4E-BP1 Thr(37/46), or GSK3beta Ser(9) and decreased that of eEF2 Thr(56), higher insulin doses to 72 and 167 mU/l did not augment these latter responses. MAFbx and proteasome C2 subunit proteins declined as insulin increased, with MuRF-1 expression largely unchanged. Thus increasing AA and insulin availability causes changes in anabolic signaling and amounts of enzymes of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, which cannot be easily reconciled with observed effects on MPS or LPB.