The Stroke Self-Efficacy Questionnaire: measuring individual confidence in functional performance after stroke

J Clin Nurs. 2008 Apr;17(7B):244-52. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2702.2008.02333.x.


Aims and objectives: The aim was to develop a questionnaire for use by practitioners working in stroke care to measure self-efficacy judgements in specific domains of functioning relevant to individuals following stroke.

Background: The prevalence of stroke is set to rise across the developed world especially amongst the elderly population. Recovery and adjustment in the longer term can be affected by many different factors. Current objective measures of functional performance used in many stroke programmes may not fully explain the extent of personal levels of confidence that could ultimately influence outcome.

Methods: Three separate studies were conducted to develop the Stroke Self-Efficacy Questionnaire. A total of 112 stroke survivors, between 2 and 24 weeks, poststroke participated in the study. Development of the scale was undertaken between 2004 and 2006.

Results: The final 13-item Stroke Self-Efficacy Questionnaire was found to have good face validity and feasibility to use in the recovery period following stroke. Cronbach Alpha was 0.90 suggesting good internal consistency, and criterion validity was high compared with the Falls Efficacy Scale, r = 0.803, p < 0.001. The Stroke Self-Efficacy Questionnaire was also able to discriminate between those participants walking and not walking.

Conclusions: Preliminary psychometric testing of the new Stroke Self-Efficacy Questionnaire has indicated that it is a valid measure of confidence for functional performance and aspects of self-management relevant for individuals recovering from stroke.

Relevance to clinical practice: The Stroke Self-Efficacy Questionnaire could assist clinicians and researchers working in acute stroke care and rehabilitation to screen levels of confidence of stroke survivors in relation to functional performance and self-management. The Stroke Self-Efficacy Questionnaire could be used as part of battery of stroke outcome measures to provide a more comprehensive overview of factors influencing performance in the individuals recovering from a stroke.

Publication types

  • Validation Study

MeSH terms

  • Activities of Daily Living / psychology*
  • Adaptation, Psychological
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Analysis of Variance
  • Attitude to Health*
  • Discriminant Analysis
  • Feasibility Studies
  • Humans
  • Linear Models
  • Middle Aged
  • Nursing Assessment / methods
  • Nursing Evaluation Research
  • Principal Component Analysis
  • Psychometrics
  • Recovery of Function
  • Self Care / psychology
  • Self Efficacy*
  • Self-Assessment
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • Stroke / psychology*
  • Stroke Rehabilitation
  • Surveys and Questionnaires / standards*
  • Survivors / psychology*