Chemotherapy has reached a therapeutic plateau in the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and effective, better-tolerated treatment strategies are needed. An improved understanding of the molecular processes underlying tumor biology has led to the development of therapies that target these processes. Intracellular signaling pathways related to the vascular endothelial growth factor and the epidermal growth factor receptor both play a central role in tumorigenesis as well as tumor growth, and are therefore rational targets for anti-cancer drug development. Various agents that target these pathways are in clinical development. Some of these have already changed treatment practice in NSCLC, most notably the monoclonal antibody, bevacizumab, in combination with chemotherapy in the first-line setting and the small-molecule tyrosine-kinase inhibitors, erlotinib and gefitinib, in the second-line setting. We will review the clinical data for various novel therapies and identify how these agents are improving outcomes in the first- and second-line treatment of advanced NSCLC.