In this study, we describe the association between Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and symptomatic nephrolithiasis. The DMD patients were matched to non-ambulatory control patients with non-DMD neurological diagnoses via retrospective chart review. All patients with DMD and symptomatic nephrolithiasis were over 20 years old. We found that six of the 29 at-risk DMD patients had nephrolithiasis (20.7%) while only one of the 68 control patients had nephrolithiasis (1.5%) (p<0.0001). Controlling for duration of immobilization with stratified analysis, the risk ratio for nephrolithiasis among DMD patients compared with controls was 9.94. Using rate-based estimates of renal stone development per 10,000 patient-years, the ratio of stone development among DMD patients compared with controls was 18.5. On logistic regression analysis, the corrected odds ratio for nephrolithiasis comparing DMD patients to controls was 14.26. We conclude that, in our study group, DMD was an independent risk factor for symptomatic nephrolithiasis.