Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: inhibition of mammalian isoforms I-XIV with a series of substituted phenols including paracetamol and salicylic acid

Bioorg Med Chem. 2008 Aug 1;16(15):7424-8. doi: 10.1016/j.bmc.2008.06.013. Epub 2008 Jun 13.


Inhibition of 12 mammalian isoforms of the metalloenzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC, CA I-XIV, with a series of phenols was investigated. The inhibition profile by phenols of these CAs was distinct from those of the sulfonamides and their isosteres, the main class of clinically used inhibitors. Phenol and some of its 2-, 3- and 4-substituted derivatives incorporating hydroxy-, fluoro-, carboxy-, amino-, cyano- and acetamido-moieties were generally effective low micromolar CA inhibitors, with inhibition constants in the range of 9.8-4003 microM against CA I, of 0.090-870 microM against CA II, of 0.71-885 microM against CA III, of 9.5-809 microM against CA IV, of 8.7-867 microM against CA VA, of 4.2-649 microM against CA VB, of 11.4-658 microM against CA VI, of 9.1-1359 microM against CA VII, of 8.8-517 microM against CA IX, of 4.1-598 microM against CA XII, of 12.2-697 microM against CA XIII and of 10.1-49.8 microM against CA XIV, respectively. The different mechanisms of inhibition by phenols as compared to sulfonamides, and their diverse inhibition profile for these mammalian isozymes, makes this class of derivatives of great interest for the design of compounds with selectivity and/or specificity for some of the medicinal chemistry targets belonging to this enzyme family.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Acetaminophen / chemistry
  • Acetaminophen / pharmacology*
  • Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors / chemistry
  • Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors / pharmacology*
  • Carbonic Anhydrases / chemistry
  • Carbonic Anhydrases / metabolism*
  • Molecular Structure
  • Protein Isoforms
  • Salicylic Acid / chemistry
  • Salicylic Acid / pharmacology*
  • Structure-Activity Relationship


  • Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors
  • Protein Isoforms
  • Acetaminophen
  • Carbonic Anhydrases
  • Salicylic Acid