Objective social outcomes index (SIX): a method to summarise objective indicators of social outcomes in mental health care

Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2008 Jul;118(1):57-63. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0447.2008.01217.x.


Objective: No method has yet been established to summarise different objective indicators of social outcomes into one score. The study aimed to develop and test a simple, brief and meaningful index of social outcomes that can be used across a broad range of mental health studies and is potentially obtainable from routine documentation.

Method: An index capturing employment, accommodation and living situation (range from 0 to 6; SIX) was devised and tested in three longitudinal datasets of patients with severe mental illness from Germany, Sweden and the UK.

Results: SIX showed an almost normal distribution cross-sectionally in all three datasets. Between 58 and 78% of patients changed scores over time. Change scores were weakly associated with change scores of symptoms, quality of life, global functioning and disability.

Conclusion: A simple method to summarise different indicators of social outcomes provides meaningful results. It can be widely used in research and routine care.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Anxiety Disorders / psychology
  • Anxiety Disorders / rehabilitation
  • Case Management
  • Cross-Cultural Comparison
  • Female
  • Germany
  • Humans
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Male
  • Mental Disorders / psychology
  • Mental Disorders / rehabilitation*
  • Middle Aged
  • Mood Disorders / psychology
  • Mood Disorders / rehabilitation
  • Outcome Assessment, Health Care / statistics & numerical data*
  • Personality Disorders / psychology
  • Personality Disorders / rehabilitation
  • Psychometrics / statistics & numerical data
  • Psychotic Disorders / psychology
  • Psychotic Disorders / rehabilitation
  • Quality of Life / psychology*
  • Rehabilitation, Vocational
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Schizophrenia / rehabilitation
  • Schizophrenic Psychology*
  • Social Adjustment*
  • Substance-Related Disorders / psychology
  • Substance-Related Disorders / rehabilitation
  • Sweden
  • United Kingdom