Performing a complete canine semen evaluation in a small animal hospital

Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 1991 May;21(3):545-51. doi: 10.1016/s0195-5616(91)50060-7.


Normal dog semen ranges in volume from 1 to 30 mL per ejaculate and contains 300 million to 2 billion sperm, of which more than 70% are progressively motile and morphologically normal. Dog semen should contain fewer than 10,000 bacteria per mL; higher numbers are indication of an infection of the male reproductive tract and usually are associated with cytologic evidence of inflammation (neutrophils in semen sediment) and with decreased progressive motility and decreased numbers of morphologically normal sperm. Measurement of pH of seminal plasma of dogs with infection of the reproductive tract may provide information on determining the choice of antibiotic. Measurement of seminal plasma alkaline phosphatase in azoospermic dogs is an indicator of tubular patency to the level of the epididymides.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Dogs / physiology*
  • Male
  • Semen / chemistry
  • Semen / cytology*
  • Semen / microbiology
  • Specimen Handling / veterinary*
  • Sperm Count / veterinary*