Black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) for menopausal symptoms: a systematic review of its efficacy

Pharmacol Res. 2008 Jul;58(1):8-14. doi: 10.1016/j.phrs.2008.05.008. Epub 2008 Jun 8.


Since conventional hormone replacement therapy has fallen out of favour, alternatives are being sought by many women. These therapies include herbal preparations such as black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa). The purpose of this update of a previous systematic review is to evaluate the clinical evidence for or against the efficacy of black cohosh in alleviating menopausal symptoms. Five computerized databases (Medline, Embase, Amed, Phytobase and Cochrane Library) were searched to identify all clinical data that provided evidence on the efficacy of C. racemosa. Bibliographies of the articles thus located were scanned for further relevant publications. Only double blind, randomized, clinical trials (RCTs) were included in the evaluation of efficacy. No language restrictions were imposed. Trials were excluded if they did not focus on menopausal problems, they included women suffering medically induced menopause, they did not use black cohosh monopreparations, or they did not use placebo or a standard drug treatment for the control group. Six studies with a total of 1112 peri- and post-menopausal women met our inclusion criteria. The evidence from these RCTs does not consistently demonstrate an effect of black cohosh on menopausal symptoms; a beneficial effect of black cohosh on peri-menopausal women cannot be excluded. The efficacy of black cohosh as a treatment for menopausal symptoms is uncertain and further rigorous trials seem warranted.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Cimicifuga / chemistry*
  • Clinical Trials as Topic
  • Estrogen Replacement Therapy
  • Female
  • Hot Flashes / drug therapy*
  • Humans
  • Menopause / drug effects*
  • Phytoestrogens
  • Phytotherapy*
  • Plant Preparations / therapeutic use*


  • Phytoestrogens
  • Plant Preparations