The combination piperaquine and dihydroartemisinin is emerging as first line treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Southeast Asia. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of a standard Vietnamese meal on the single-dose pharmacokinetics of piperaquine when administered in combination with dihydroartemisinin, and to gain extended data on the terminal half-life of piperaquine in healthy Vietnamese volunteers. Subjects were randomly assigned to take a single oral dose of piperaquine phosphate (640 mg)+dihydroartemisinin (80 mg) together with a standardized Vietnamese meal (n=16) or to remain fasting for 4h following drug intake (n=16). Frequent blood sampling was conducted during 36 h, followed by weekly samples for 7 weeks. The pharmacokinetic parameters of piperaquine were determined by noncompartmental analysis. The median (80% central range) AUC(0-last) was 11.5 (6.9-17.3)h mg/L in fed and 13.9 (2.8-19.3)h mg/L in fasting subjects, indicating a considerable variability in exposure in both groups. The estimated overall oral clearance was 0.27 (0.12-1.49)L/(h kg), the volume of distribution during the terminal elimination phase was 230 (102-419)L/kg and estimated terminal half-life was 18 (5-93) days. This study did not demonstrate a significant impact of a standardized Vietnamese meal on the oral absorption of piperaquine.